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First Name: Wallace

Last Name: Hanes

Birthplace: USA

Gender: Male

Branch: Army (1784 - present)



Home of Record: Dallas, TX
Middle Name: Murdock



Date of Birth: 21 March 1916

Date of Death: 06 December 2010

Rank: Colonel

Years Served: 30
Wallace Murdock Hanes

   
Engagements:
•  World War II (1941 - 1945)
•  Korean War (1950 - 1953)

Biography:

Wallace Murdock Hanes
Colonel, U.S. Army

Wallace Murdock Hanes was the son of James Benjamin and Mary Killian Hanes.

During World War II, Hanes served principally in the Italian Theater of Operations.

In May 1951, then-Lieutenant Colonel Wallace Murdock Hanes was serving as Commanding Officer of the 3rd Battalion, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division, in Korea.

From 17 to 19 May, LTC Hanes' unit was engaged with enemy forces in the vicinity of Kusong-po-ri, Korea. On 17 May, the 3rd Battalion was defensively deployed in a strategically important sector (Hill 800) of the 2nd Division lines when the enemy launched a massive offensive against the Battalion positions. Ignoring the intense mortar barrages preceding the attack and the intense small-arms and automatic-weapons fire that accompanied it, LTC Hanes remained with the most forward elements of his Battalion, encouraging his men and directing their fire. The Battalion steadfastly held its positions, even when infiltrating enemy forces reached the area occupied by the friendly troops. With his troops secure in well prepared * foxholes, LTC Hanes ordered heavy artillery fire on his own position, slaughtering the hostile forces and stopping each of their attempts break through. When the enemy succeeded in outflanking some of the Battalion positions, they were met with counterattacks and the effective fire of his mortars. He personally led his reserves in repelling the enemy at bayonet point. When the enemy retreated on the evening of 19 May, 2500 enemy dead were counted in front of the 3rd Battalion positions and it was estimated that the enemy forces had suffered between 8,000 and 10,000 casualties in their futile attempts to break the resistance of LTC Hanes and his Battalion. LTC Hanes' extraordinary heroism and superb leadership earned him the U.S. Army's second highest award for valor, the Distinguished Service Cross.

[* Seeing the success that resulted from this battle, it is evident that the words 'well-prepared' must have applied to most things that LTC Hanes did in preparing for it. Consider the actual report from the U.S. Army Center of Military History (http://www.history.army.mil/books/korea/30-2/30-2_13.HTM) at the bottom of this page.]

While in Korea, LTC Hanes also commanded the UN Raider Forces (GHQ Special Activities Group).

Later in his career, Colonel Hanes commanded both the 502nd and 503rd Airborne Infantry Regiments. He served as the Chief Readiness Officer for NATO Ground Forces, Supreme Allied Commander Europe, in Paris, France, during his last tour in Europe. During various tours in the Pentagon, he was a member of the Continental US Defense Planning Group, the Inter-American Defense Board, and the Army General Staff Special Warfare Directorate. He was also Chief of the General Forces Branch, Chairman Special Studies Group, Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Colonel Hanes' last assignment was as Chief of Staff at STRATCOM, Fort Huachuca, AZ. He retired after 30 years service.

Education

He is a graduate of the Command and General Staff College, the Army War College, and the University of Maryland, where he also did graduate work.

Medals, Awards and Badges

Distinguished Service Cross
Silver Star Medal with Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star Medal with 2 Bronze Oak Leaf Clusters
Joint Service Commendation Medal
Army Commendation Medal with 2 Bronze Oak Leaf Clusters
American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal
National Defense Service Medal
Korean Service Medal
United Nations Service Medal
Republic of Korea War Service Medal
Army Presidential Unit Citation
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation
Combat Infantryman Badge with Star (Second Award)
Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge
Army Staff Identification Badge

He was also awarded the CHUNGMU Distinguished Service Medal from the Republic of Korea.

Distinguished Service Cross Citation

The President of the United States of America, under the provisions of the Act of Congress approved July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Lieutenant Colonel (Infantry) Wallace Murdock Hanes, United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United Nations while serving as Commanding Officer of the 3d Battalion, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Lieutenant Colonel Hanes distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action against enemy aggressor forces in the vicinity of Kusong-po-ri, Korea, on 17 and 19 May 1951. On 17 May 1951, the 3d Battalion was defensively deployed in a strategically important sector of the 2d Division lines when the enemy launched a massive offensive against the battalion positions. Utterly indifferent to the intense mortar barrages preceding the attack and the intense small-arms and automatic-weapons fire which accompanied it, Colonel Hanes remained with the most forward elements of his battalion, encouraging his men and directing their fire. Inspired by the aggressive leadership and heroic actions of Colonel Hanes, the battalion steadfastly held its positions, even when infiltrating enemy forces reached the area occupied by the friendly troops. With his troops secure in deeply dug and well covered foxholes, Colonel Hanes brought heavy artillery fire on his own position, slaughtering the hostile forces and foiling each desperate attempt by the enemy to effect a breakthrough. When enemy elements succeeded in outflanking some of the battalion positions, he met them with fierce counterattacks, skillfully directing effective fire of his mortars and personally leading his reserves in repelling the enemy at bayonet point. When the enemy retreated on the evening of 19 May 1951, 2500 enemy dead were counted in front of the 3d Battalion positions and it was estimated that the hostile forces had suffered between 8,000 and 10,000 casualties in their futile attempts to break the resistance of Colonel Hanes and his gallant battalion. The extraordinary heroism and superb leadership of Colonel Hanes reflect great credit on himself and are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.

General Orders: Headquarters, Eighth U.S. Army, Korea: General Orders No. 473 (June 29, 1951)

Death and Inurnment

Colonel Wallace Murdock Hanes died at his home in Tucson, AZ, on 6 December 2010, in the company of his wife of 52 years, Cecilia. He is inurned at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Arlington County, VA, in Columbarium 9 S29-7-3.

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=149108631

Sample of LTC Hanes' Battle Preparations

Having a defensive mission, LTC Hanes gave first priority to clearing fields of fire and constructing bunkers, ordering all companies to build covered positions, one for every two or three men. Most of the men, thinking in terms of concealment and protection from heavy spring rains, dug their holes in the usual fashion, covering them with branches and ponchos, and then quit.

LTC Hanes returned next day to inspect the positions. "That's concealment?" he complained to his company officers. "Dammit, I want bunkers with cover to protect you from artillery fire!"

Each day he returned and climbed the ridgelines to supervise the job of building fortifications. He made the men cut down more trees, dig more trenches, and pile more dirt on the bunkers. One company commander, when LTC Hanes insisted on more earth over the bunkers in his area, asked for sand bags, saying he would need about five thousand. "Five thousand!" stormed Hanes. "My God, man! You don't want five thousand sand bags. You want twenty thousand!" Even that number was later found to be inadequate.

After a number of shifts in the battalion's sector and after laboring for a week to get the infantrymen to strengthen their positions with heavy logs and bags of earth, LTC Hanes explained to his company commanders that if the enemy attacked in the numbers he expected, it might be necessary to fire friendly artillery on their (the Americans') own positions, using proximity fuze for air-burst effect. "If it is necessary," he said, "I don't want you to worry about calling in the fire. I'll do that. All you have to do is fix up your bunkers so that you will have a clear field of fire to your front and to your neighbors' bunkers and won't get hit by your own shell fragments when I call down the fire."

After that, men of the 3d Battalion worked diligently. When the bunkers were completed to Hanes' satisfaction, he planned to string barbed wire and sow mines across the battalion's front. Because of the distance and the difficult terrain over which all supplies had to be carried, the infantrymen at first thought he was only joking when he talked of putting in wire. They believed him only when the Korean civilians began carrying rolls of barbed wire onto the hill and the men from the Battalion's Ammunition and Pioneer Platoon arrived to supervise the work.

Seven hundred of these civilians carried supplies to the 3d Battalion. During the period of preparation, they moved 237,000 sand bags to the top of the hill; 385 rolls of barbed wire; almost 2,000 long steel pickets for installing wire aprons, and nearly 4,000 short ones; and 39 55-gallon fougasse drums. (A fougasse is a sort of dug-in, improved flame-thrower made with a drum of napalm-thickened gasoline, an explosive charge of a couple of pounds of TNT or white phosphorus mortar shells, and a detonator. When detonated, the fougasse bursts into a mass of flame about 10 yards wide and 25 to 40 yards long.) This equipment was in addition to the normal supplies rations, cans of water, and ammunition. It required eight Korean men to carry one fougasse drum up the hill; one man could carry a roll of barbed wire or a box of rations. A round trip took three or four hours. At the base of the hill were several buildings where members of the carrying parties were fed.

In addition to the laborers, the battalion used a herd of thirty-two oxen to transport a section of the heavy 4.2-inch mortars and to stockpile mortar ammunition. Because of dominant terrain features to the front of the battalion's positions, a special mountain trail was cut in the reverse slope of a mountain finger of the north-south ridgeline of which Hill 800 was a part, so as to permit the uninterrupted supply of Companies K and L and the heavy 4.2-inch mortars.

The most probable routes of enemy attack were blocked by two or more double-apron wire barriers; most of the battalion's front had at least one. As the wire situation improved, LTC Hanes stressed other improvements antipersonnel mine fields, trip flares, fougasse drums, buried telephone wires, and communication trenches.

On 10 May 1951, the Commander of Eighth Army (Lt. Gen. James A. Van Fleet) and the Commander of X Corps (Lt. Gen. E. M. Almond) landed by helicopter on Hill 800 and declared the 3d Battalion's preparations to be the most formidable in X Corps' sector.



Honoree ID: 309833   Created by: MHOH

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