Edward Mallory Almond
Engagements: • World War I (1914 - 1918)• World War II (1941 - 1945)• Korean War (1950 - 1953)
Edward Mallory Almond
Edward Mallory Almond was born on 12 December 1892 in Luray, VA. He graduated from Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in 1915. In November 1916 he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant of Infantry; he received a promotion to First Lieutenant in 1917.
In World War I he served with the 4th Division (commanded by Generals John L. Hines and George H. Cameron) in France from June 1918 into the occupation period. He was promoted to the temporary rank of Major in October 1918.
Almond taught military science at Marion Institute, AL, during 1919-23 and, after attending the Infantry School at Fort Benning, GA, in 1924, he taught there again until 1928. In August of 1928, he was promoted to Major.
He graduated from the Command & General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, KS, in 1930. After a tour of duty in the Philippines, he attended the Army War College in 1934. From 1934-38, he was attached to the Intelligence Division of the General Staff. After promotion to Lieutenant Colonel in September 1938, he completed the course at the U.S. Navy War College in 1940. In January 1941, he was assigned staff duty at VI Corps HQ, Providence, RI, and in October was promoted to the temporary rank of Colonel.
World War II
Upon his promotion to the temporary rank of Brigadier General in March 1942, he was named Assistant Commander of the 93rd Infantry Division in Arizona. In July 1942, he took command of the new 92nd Infantry Division (Negro) which he organized and, following its activation in October, trained in Alabama and Arizona until August 1944, when he took it overseas for service in Italy. (Almond was promoted to temporary Major General in September 1942.) The 92nd attacked the Ligurian Coast toward Massa and for months fought a seesaw battle up and down the Serchio Valley.
In April 1945, a major drive north was spearheaded by the famed 442nd Regiment (Nisei), a unit of the 92nd Division; La Spezia was taken, the German Gothic Line flanked, and the way to the Po Valley across the mountains opened. By the time of the German surrender on 2 May 1945, the 92nd held the coast north to Genoa.
Almond returned to the U.S. in August 1945 and was placed in Command of the 2nd Division at Camp Swift, TX, in September and was promoted to the permanent rank of Colonel in December. In June 1946 he was transferred to General Douglas MacArthur's HQ staff in Tokyo, Japan, becoming Deputy Chief of Staff, Far Eastern Command, in January 1947. Promoted to the permanent rank of Major General in January 1948 (dating from September 1944), he became Chief of Staff, Far East Command, in February 1949.
Soon after the outbreak of the Korean War in September 1950, Almond was made Commander of the newly-created X Corps that was assembled from two skeleton divisions and assorted other elements. Its mission was to execute MacArthur's plan for an amphibious assault at Inchon, midway up the west coast of the Korean peninsula. The landing, conducted by naval forces under Admiral Arthur D. Struble, took place on 15 September. Almond's X Corps quickly took Seoul and linked up with General Walton H. Walker's 8th Army; together they pushed north, trapping some 120,000 North Korean troops. In October, X Corps moved by sea around the peninsula and landed unopposed at Wonsan, on the east coast of North Korea.
After integrating the Republic of Korea's I Corps into his command, he pushed north and reached the Chinese border at the Yalu River on 21 November. Massive Chinese counterattacks on 25 November forced UN forces to withdraw and, by 11 December, X Corps had concentrated in the port of Hungnam. From there it embarked for Pusan, South Korea; a huge operation that involved moving 105,000 troops with all their materiel for integration with 8th Army. (The operation also moved almost 100,000 refugees.) Re-entering the front line in east-central Korea, X Corps was a central anchor in the UN defense and took part in a gradual advance back across the 38th parallel.
Almond was promoted to temporary Lieutenant General in February 1951, and remained in Command of X Corps until July. He was then placed in Command of the Army War College, a post he held until his retirement in January 1953.
Medals and Awards
Distinguished Service Cross with Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster
Distinguished Service Cross Citation (1st of 2 Awards)
The President of the United States of America, under the provisions of the Act of Congress approved July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Major General Edward M. Almond (ASN: 0-466), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United Nations while serving as Commanding General of X Corps. Major General Almond distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action against enemy aggressor forces in the Republic of Korea during the period from 15 to 25 September 1950. During the seizure of Inchon, General Almond personally visited front line units, coordinated tactical efforts, and by his own fearless example aided them in seizing assigned objectives. Following the fall of Inchon, General Almond personally led his troops in their rapid drive through enemy-held territory to seize Seoul, and to speed the disintegration of the enemy forces. During the assault of the Han River, he moved to a forward position well beyond the line of friendly forces to observe and control the river crossing. Despite heavy enemy mortar fire directed at him, General Almond remained to supervise the air and artillery support which was protecting the first units of the Seventh Infantry Division crossing the river. Disregarding enemy mine fields and sniper fire, he proceeded to the crossing site to direct fire of amphibious tanks neutralizing enemy opposition which was impeding our crossing. By his inspirational leadership, his complete indifference to danger, and personal control of the battlefield, General Almond quickly concluded tactical operations which destroyed the enemy forces in the X Corps zone of action and saved countless lives in the forces under his command.
General Orders: General Headquarters Far East Command: General Orders No. 43 (October 23, 1950)
Distinguished Service Cross Citation (2nd of 2 Awards)
The President of the United States of America, under the provisions of the Act of Congress approved July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Second Award of the Distinguished Service Cross to Lieutenant General Edward M. Almond (ASN: 0-466), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United Nations while serving as Commanding General, X Corps. Lieutenant General Almond distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action against enemy aggressor forces during the massive offensive by three known Communist Armies against the X Corps, during the period from 16 through 25 May 1951. General Almond personally directed the historic defense which contained this attack and resulted in crushing losses in enemy manpower and materiel. During this period General Almond distinguished himself by countless acts of individual heroism as well as providing the inspiration, leadership and tactical skill which contributed materially the success of this operation. On 19 May 1951, while reconnoitering enemy positions in a light aircraft, he observed 250 enemy at a point forward of a friendly tank patrol. General Almond landed his plane by the tank column and sent the tank platoon leader in his aide's plane to observe the enemy group. While with the tank column the enemy set up a machine gun within 500 yards of his position. Without regard for hostile fire from this gun, he directed tank fire which silenced the weapon. The tank platoon went on to destroy the 250 enemy. On 21 May 1951, General Almond made an aerial reconnaissance before a tank column operating at Soksa-ri, Korea. While flying low over this area, General Almond received intense automatic-weapons fire. Again, without regard for personal safety, he located these weapons and personally directed their destruction. Again on 25 May 1951, he made four flights in an unarmed light plane through the enemy-held mountain pass between Hangye and the Umyang bridgehead on the Seyang River. Despite intense enemy small-arms and friendly artillery fire, he returned time and again to insure proper command and liaison between friendly forces operating at both ends of the pass. These specific acts, as well as countless visits to forward-most command posts, provided the inspiration and forceful leadership essential at this critical time.
General Orders: Headquarters, Eighth U.S. Army, Korea: General Orders No. 362 (May 28, 1951)
After retiring, he lived in Anniston, AL, where he was an executive in an insurance company and had numerous civic interests.
Edward Almond married Margaret Cook and they had two children: Edward Mallory Almond, Jr. and Margaret.
U.S. Army Captain Edward Mallory Almond, Jr. graduated from the USMA in 1943 and was killed in action on 19 March 1945 in World War II. Their daughter, Margaret, married Thomas T. Galloway, Major, U.S. Army Air Corps, and he was killed in action over France in July 1944.
Death and Burial
Lieutenant General Edward Mallory Almond died on 11 June 1979 in Anniston, AL. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, VA.
Buried with him are his son, Captain Edward Mallory Almond, Jr. and his wife, Margaret Cook Almond, who died 29 June 1990.
Their son-in-law, Major Thomas T. Galloway, U.S. Army Air Corps is also buried next to them.
|Honoree ID: 98||Created by: MHOH|